The '''Church of Scotland''' (, ), known informally by its Scots language name, '''the Kirk''', is the established church
[[http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/QueenandChurch/QueenandChurch.aspx Queen and the Church], royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 July 2015.] Protestant
, its longstanding decision to respect "liberty of opinion on matters not affecting the substance of the faith" means it is relatively tolerant of a variety of theological positions, including those who would term themselves conservative and liberal in their doctrine, ethics and interpretation of Scripture. It is legally the national church
The Church of Scotland traces its roots back to the Christianity in Medieval Scotland|beginnings of Christianity in Scotland
, but its identity is principally shaped by the Reformation of 1560. As of December 2013, its pledged membership is 398,389,
or about 7.5% of the...